More specifically, the effect is the result of warmer air caused by carbon dioxide emissions, which increases wind shear in the jet streams. Directly strengthening turbulence, especially over the North Atlantic.
The Jet Stream is formed by narrow, fast-flowing bands of strong winds in the upper levels of the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean.
Data shows that routes over the North Atlantic and USA experienced the most pronounced increase, through busy paths over Europe, The Middle East, and South America also felt the impact.
In addition to creating an uncomfortable ride for passengers, turbulence is estimated to cost the aviation industry between $150-500 million in the US due to increased wear-and-tear on planes and injuries to those onboard.
This study analysed 41 years of flight data over the North Atlantic from aircraft flying in clear-air conditions.
It is already a warm morning for those in southern areas of the UK and Ireland, and things are only getting hotter from here.
Kickstarting your morning
Welcome to your breakfast briefing, preparing you for the day's weather and offering a sneak peek at today's articles!
We're off to a hot start in Ireland and southern areas of the UK, with highs of 15°C in Cork and 16°C in Plymouth at just 06:00 am. Temperatures rise through the day, peaking around 26°C in the southwestern UK.
Cloud cover which has persisted over the northeast for days is finally easing through, it remains cooler in the region, particularly in eastern Scotland. It is a largely clear day, though some heavy showers pass over southern Ireland from 10:00 am.
2022 was one of the warmest years since records began in 1850, despite coinciding with La Niña, which often causes lower average global temperatures.
El Niño delivers the opposite effect, warming ocean waters in the tropical Pacific Ocean which could lead to global temperature records in 2024.
Consequences of El Niño event
Strong and moderate El Niño phases contribute to warming and increase average global surface temperatures, according to the WMO.
While the direct effects are felt in the Pacific Ocean close to the equator, they influence weather around the world.
During an El Niño event, trade winds weaken. Heavy rains occur more frequently along the coasts of South America, which can be very damaging, while severe droughts can affect Southeast Asia, including Australia.
Although there is no specific impact on the UK and Ireland, La Niña can result in more storms on our shores, while El Niño is somewhat associated with colder winters.
With that trend set to continue, we now have the first summer free from ice in our sights. This has the potential to make the situation in the region even worse.
Sea ice is bright white and can reflect some solar energy back towards the atmosphere, whereas the ocean below is much darker and absorbs that energy, warming faster, and making recovery for ice even tougher.
As sea ice is influenced by both atmospheric and oceanic elements, determining an exact date is not possible. It was previously thought to take place in the 2040s or 2050s by the IPCC depending on actions to limit carbon emissions.
Up to 90% of Arctic melt is considered to be the result of human actions.
The news is yet another symbol of our climate’s health, and follows research late last year showing that the planet is at risk of crossing six key climate tipping points.